Historical Drops # 002: Your weekly dose of History here at Mega!
In this week's edition of the "Historical Drops" board, you will see everything that happened in history in early April, including the beginning of the Falklands War, when our Argentine neighbors invaded a small archipelago that is close to their territory, but it is dominated by the United Kingdom since 1833.
You'll also learn more about the first ever mobile phone call in history, the founding of NATO, the creation of Microsoft, and the inauguration of the World Trade Center. Many personalities are also present, such as Pope John Paul II, Martin Luther King Jr., Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva, Henry Ford and others. Check out!
1982: Falkland War: Argentina invades the Falkland Islands
The Falklands War was a military conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom, which took place from April 2 to June 14, 1982. The South American country argued that the Falkland Islands (located 464 km off the Argentine coast) should be incorporated into the nation. because the independence of Argentina in 1822 would have given the right to the territory - which previously belonged to Spain.
Died on this day ...
2005: Pope John Paul II
He had the third largest documented pontificate in history, leading the Catholic Church for over 26 years. He was also the only Slavic and Polish pope and the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Hadrian VI in 1522. John Paul II is considered one of the most influential leaders of the twentieth century.
1948: American President Harry Truman signs the Marshall Plan
It was the main US plan that granted $ 143 billion (today's value, adjusted for inflation) for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. The country's goal was to strengthen capitalism and prevent the spread of communism.
1973: Motorola's Martin Cooper Makes First Mobile Phone Call
That day, former Motorola engineer Martin Cooper used the world's first cellphone (created by him) to talk to one of his rivals at the time and show off his invention, setting up the conversation on New York's Sixth Avenue. The device in question was the Motorola DynaTAC, which looked like a brick made of plastic and weighed about 1 kilogram.
1925: Foundation of Schutzstaffel (SS), Germany
The SS was a paramilitary organization linked to the Nazi party and Adolf Hitler. It started as a small unit and later added nearly 1 million men, exerting great influence on the Third Reich. He was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity committed by the Nazis during World War II.
1949: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is founded.
NATO is an intergovernmental military alliance of 29 countries through which its member states agree to defend each other in response to an attack by any entity outside the organization. It was actually first used in Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks on the United States.
1973: The World Trade Center in New York is officially opened.
The original WTC consisted of seven different buildings, and the striking "twin towers" were destroyed in the September 11, 2001, attack, along with World Trade Center 7. The rest were damaged and demolished. The destroyed buildings gave way to a new complex consisting of six towers, a museum, a memorial, as well as some additional structures.
1975: Microsoft is founded
The American multinational was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, United States. It started selling a BASIC interpreter for the Altair 8800 computer and today dominates computers worldwide with the company's flagship Windows operating system. It is currently the third largest company on the planet and the seventh most valuable brand in the world.
Died on this day ...
1967: Martin Luther King Jr, Murdered at 39
He was a Protestant pastor and American political activist. He became one of the leading leaders of the black civil rights movement in the United States and the world, with a campaign of nonviolence and love of neighbor. His efforts led to the 1963 Washington March, where he made his speech "I Have a Dream." On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence.
1879: Chile declares war on Bolivia and Peru, starting Pacific War
The Pacific War was a conflict between 1879 and 1883, confronting Chile with the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru. At the end of the war, Chile annexed resource-rich areas of both defeated countries. Peru lost the province of the Tarapacá Region, and Bolivia had to cede the province of Antofagasta, without a sovereign outlet to the sea, which has become a national issue for the country ever since.
1896: Opening of the first modern Olympic Summer Games in Athens
They were held in Athens, Greece, birthplace of the Ancient Games. The event was attended by 241 athletes from 14 countries (Brazil not included) in 43 events of 9 sports. The Olympic Games were only active again thanks to the commitment of Frenchman Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin, creator of the revival of the Games, mentor of the Olympic movement and founder of the International Olympic Committee.
Died on this day ...
1838: José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, Brazilian statesman
He was also a naturalist and poet. He is known as the “Patriarch of Independence” because he was a decisive person for Brazil's independence. Studied Law and Natural Philosophy at the University of Coimbra and became one of the most respected scientists of the Portuguese Empire.
1992: Isaac Asimov, Russian Writer
Asimov is one of the masters of science fiction, being considered one of the "big three" of the genre, along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke. His most famous works are the “Foundation Series” and the short story collection “I, Robot”. He has written over 500 books, including stories of mystery, fantasy and nonfiction. In 1981, an asteroid was named after him: the 5020 Asimov.
1831: Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates in favor of his son, Dom Pedro de Alcântara
The loss of the Cisplatin Province and economic hardship shook the emperor's prestige. In addition, he became involved in the dispute over the throne of Portugal, which became vacant with the death of his father, D. João VI. Without political support, D. Pedro I was advised to resign and abdicate the throne in favor of his son Pedro, who was only 5 years old. Because of the prince's minority, a provisional triple regency was formed to administer the country.
Died on this day ...
1947: Henry Ford, US entrepreneur
He was a businessman and inventor and founder of Ford Motor Company, one of the largest vehicle manufacturers in the world. Ford was the first businessman to apply mass-assembling to mass-produce automobiles in less time and less cost (later called Fordism). The introduction of its Ford T model revolutionized US transportation and industry.
1911: Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers superconductivity
He found that certain types of substances, when at very low temperatures, very close to absolute zero, had almost zero electrical resistance, that is, the free electrons that conduct the electric current could move freely in the crystal lattice.
Died on this day ...
1973: Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter
In addition to being a painter, he was a sculptor, ceramist, set designer, poet and playwright. He is known as co-founder of cubism (alongside Georges Braque), inventor of constructed sculpture and collage. Among his most famous works are the cubist paintings "The Girls D'Avignon" (1907) and "Guernica" (1937), a painting of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
2013: Margaret Thatcher, British Politics
The "Iron Lady" (nicknamed by a Soviet journalist because of her leadership style) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 - most often in this position during the twentieth century - being the first woman to occupy the position. Controversial, she supported privatization, the reduction of state intervention in the economy, the exaltation of the free market, the elimination of the minimum wage, the reduction of the welfare state and the fight against workers' unions.