Historical Drops # 009: Your weekly dose of History here at Mega!

This week, at Historic Drops, you can find out more about the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, the longest-running sovereign in UK history. We also have the foundation of Western philosophy, by Tales of Miletus, the fall of Constantinople, an event that marked the end of the Middle Ages, and more.

May 28th

585: Date considered by many to be the foundation of Western philosophy (eclipse predicted by Tales of Miletus)

The Greeks of later times regarded Tales of Miletus as the founder of Greek science, mathematics, and philosophy, crediting him with the paternity of most knowledge.

The feat that most enhances his reputation, according to the account quoted a century and a half later by the historian Herodotus, was the prediction made by Tales of Miletus for an eclipse of the sun - which, in fact, was recorded in the year to the end. which was expected.

1871: 147 leaders of the Paris Commune are shot

The Paris Commune was the first working-class government in history, founded in 1871 in the French capital on the occasion of popular resistance to the invasion by the Kingdom of Prussia.

South of the Père-Lachaise cemetery, the largest in Paris and one of the most famous in the world, is the Wall of the Federated ( Mur des Fédérés ), against which 147 Paris Commune leaders were shot on the last day of the "Week." Bloody "( Semaine Sanglante ).

1898: Italian photographer Secondo Pia takes first photographs of the Holy Shroud

The Holy Shroud is a piece of linen that shows the image of a man who apparently suffered physical trauma consistent with the crucifixion. The item has been stored out of public view in the Cappella della Sacra Sindone of the Royal Palace of Turin (Italy) since about 1578.

The negative image of the robe was first seen on the night of May 28, 1898 through the reverse plate made by amateur photographer Secondo Pia, who was allowed to register it during his exhibition at the Turin Cathedral.

1914: Scientist Archibald Low presents a television precursor

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Low pioneered the technology of rocket, torpedo and aircraft homing systems and served the United Kingdom's military interests during the two world wars. On May 28, 1914, Archibald Low presented in London a remote imaging device, which he named TeleVista, and which is considered one of the forerunners of television.

Born on this day ...

1945: Patch Adams, US physician and activist

Hunter Doherty “Patch” Adams was born in 1945 and founded the Gesundheit Institute in 1971. Patch Adams was famous for his unusual approach to treating his patients, claiming that caring for those who are sick with love helps - and much - in the healing process. Thanks to him, today the world is full of doctors of joy, and many smiles are causing a lot of people to leave hospitals faster.

May 29th

1453: Fall of Constantinople, Event Considered the End of the Middle Ages

The fall of Constantinople was the symbol of the decline of the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire), inaugurated by Constantine - who had given its name to the city - in the fourth century AD. This same event also marked the triumph of another empire, the Ottoman, who graduated from a Turkish sultanate in 1299, was responsible for the conquest of Constantinople.

1919: Observations of variations in star position during the total solar eclipse confirm Einstein's theory of relativity.

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The total eclipse of the Sun in Sobral (Ceará) entered the history of science by helping to experimentally prove a scientific assumption predicted in the theory of general relativity, published 4 years earlier by the German physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955): matter and energy distort the mesh of spacetime, and may also divert the path of light traveling through it.

1953: Everest summit first reached

On May 29, 1953, Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay, a Sherpa of Nepal, became the first explorers to reach the summit of Mount Everest, which, almost 9 kilometers above sea level. sea, is the highest point on earth.

The two were part of a British expedition and made their last rush towards the peak after spending the night at an altitude of 8, 200 meters. On June 2, news of the conquest quickly spread around the world.

May 30th

1431: Joan of Arc is burned at the stake at age 19 by witchcraft

Joan of Arc was a poor and illiterate girl of 17 when she decided it was her divine mission to save France from the English. In addition to a meeting with the prince, she obtained what seemed impossible: her own army of about 7, 000 men, and royal authorization to march to Orléans (130 km from Paris) and rid her of the English siege.

Upon learning that the English had recaptured Compiègne and were preparing to take Paris, Joan of Arc embarked on another campaign, but lost and was taken prisoner. She was found guilty on 12 items, including the falseness of her visions, the wearing of men's clothing, and the fact that she responded directly to God, not to the Church - considered the most infamous of all her heresies. On May 30, Joan of Arc was burned at the post of the Old Market Square in Rouen.

Died on this day ...

1778: Voltaire, philosopher and poet

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Known for his insight and wit in the defense of civil liberties, including religious and free trade, he is one of many Enlightenment figures whose works and ideas influenced important thinkers of both the French and American Revolution. A prolific writer, Voltaire has produced about 70 works in almost every literary form, signing plays, poems, novels, essays, scientific and historical works, over 20, 000 letters and over 2, 000 books and pamphlets.

may 31st

1911: The RMS Titanic is Launched

Its launch into the sea took place on May 31, 1911. More than 100, 000 people were present to witness the occasion, such as shipyard staff with their families, Belfast residents, visitors, journalists and some prominent personalities coming directly from England.

The ship slid into the water from its portico with the help of 20 tons of tallow, oil, grease and soap that were passed through all the wedges that held it in place. He was not baptized with the traditional pop of a champagne bottle because it was not a habit of Harland and Wolff, the company that built it.

2003: Last flight of an Air France Concorde

The Concorde was developed by the British and French Governments and began commercial operations in January 1976. Considered a symbol of technological, design and luxury innovation, the plane traveled approximately 3 1/2 hours between New York and London., traveling at 1, 755 km / h.

June 1st

Born on this day ...

1926: Marilyn Monroe, American Actress

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She was an American actress and model. Hollywood's movie star is one of the greatest sexual symbols of the twentieth century, immortalized by blond hair and her voluptuous forms. Initially, she became famous for playing comic characters known for the "dumb blonde" stereotype.

Although her career spanned only a decade, her films grossed over $ 200 million until her unexpected death in 1962. More than 50 years later, she remains one of the greatest icons of popular culture.

June 2nd

1953: Coronation of Elizabeth II as Queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

On June 2, 1953, Princess Elizabeth was crowned queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The ceremony, accompanied live worldwide, was the biggest media event of its time.

1964: Creation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is a political group representing the Palestinian - Arab people living in a region called Palestine on the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. They lost much of their land when the country called Israel was created in the region in 1948. Since then, they have been fighting to define an independent Palestinian state.

June 3rd

1822: Dom Pedro refuses fidelity to the Portuguese Constitution and calls the first Brazilian Constituent Assembly

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The first Constituent and Legislative Assembly of Brazil - with the main function of drafting and approving the first Constitution of the country - was convened by Prince Regent, Dom Pedro I, on June 3, 1822, even before Independence.

Died on this day ...

1924: Franz Kafka, Czech writer

Franz Kafka (1883-1924) was a German-speaking Czech writer, considered one of the leading writers of Modern Literature. His works portray the anxiety and alienation of twentieth-century man.

His style is marked by realism, crudeness and detail with which he describes unusual situations, as in the 1925 work "The Process", whose main character is arrested, tried and executed for a crime he does not know.